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Melasma, also known as chloasma, is a form of pigmentation that is stimulated by oestrogen – either from pregnancy, the pill, hormone replacement therapy or normal circulating oestrogens, and is a difficult form of pigmentation to treat. As a result, melasma mostly affects women, although it can occur uncommonly in men. It appears as large brown-grey patches on the face. It is usually located on the cheeks, upper lip, between the brows, or on the forehead. Most people who are affected by melasma tend to have a more olive or dark complexion. Melasma can never really be cured, but it can be treated to minimise its effect.